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Philippine duck

Anas luzonica

Filippijneend / Philippinen ente / Canard des Philippines


The Philippine duck is a large dabbling duck of the genus Anas. It is endemic to the Philippines and frequents most freshwater and saltwater habitats, including mangroves, open sea and watercourses inside forest. It appears to be sedentary although some seasonal aggregation occurs. It feeds on fish, shrimps, insects, rice and young vegetation. 


This duck is listed as Vulnerable (IUCN, 2012) because it is undergoing a rapid and continuing decline owing to extensive over-hunting and the widespread conversion of its wetland habitats. A total of 4,632 individuals were counted in the Asian Waterbird Census in 2004, and 4,428 in 2005 (D. Li in litt. 2005). The total population is likely to fall between 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.


Exceptionally high levels of hunting and trapping have been evident since the 1960s. Thousands were reportedly shot weekly in August-October and January-March in the late 1980s. Conversion of natural wetlands through drainage, adoption of aquaculture and fishpond creation caused its near-extinction at Candaba Marsh and threatens the Polillo population. The on-going conversion of habitat at Liguasan is also thought to be impacting the species (D. Allen in litt. 2012). Mangrove destruction and the recent extensive use of pesticides on rice-fields are also likely to have had serious impacts.


It is legally protected at five localities: Mt Iglit-Baco and Lake Naujan National Parks (Mindoro), Maria Aurora Memorial Natural Park and Bataan Natural Park/Subic Bay Forest Reserve (Luzon), and Olango Island (a Ramsar site). The Mayor of Candaba has designated part of Candaba Marsh as a protected area and two local conservation groups have been established as well as promotional materials: signs and a video documentary (B. Tabaranza in litt. 2007). The Manleluag Spring National Park, Mangatarem, Pangasinan has been a Protected Landscape since 1940 under Proclamation No. 612. At present, with the assistance of Haribon, the Local government of Mangatarem and the Protected Area Management Board of the park are proposing to expand the area of the park from 1,935 hectares to 4,240 hectares to include all the remaining tropical rainforests extending up to the boundary with Zambales Province. A government ban on firearms was imposed in 1972, although hunting continues.


Survey remaining wetland areas, especially around Polillo and Subic Bay. Conduct long-term ecological studies to establish management requirements. Afford protected status to key sites (e.g. Polillo). Recreate natural marsh habitat at Candaba. Develop a management plan for the remaining wetland habitat at Lake Naujan.


More information: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22680214/0


Captive breeding Philippine ducks

By Dan Cowell

The Philippine Duck is closely related to the Mallard and it is similar to the Mallard in care and breeding. Both the drake and the hen are similar. The breeding season begins in May when the hen lays a clutch of 8 to 10 eggs that are incubated for 26 to 28 days. They will sometimes use boxes, and the parents can be allowed to hatch and rear their own young. They are not as winter hardy as other Mallard types and need shelter during the coldest months. Other general care the same as the Mallard.



Above: adult Philippine duck



Above: adult Philippine duck



Above: adult Philippine ducks


Philippine duckling

Above: Philippine duckling, one day old (Harteman, 2019)



Above: Mallard-types from Asia and Australia. Click to enlarge.

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